Exploring the Water-Energy-Food nexus in Iraq


Authored by Bassam Yousif (Indiana State University, USA), Omar El-joule (Independent Scholar, Norway), and Jehan Baban (Iraqi Environment & Health Society, UK). Any opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect any views.DinarOpinions

In the context of conflict in Iraq, examining the interrelation between water, energy, and food is crucial.


  • We explore the interactions and linkages between Iraq’s water, energy, and food sectors, known as the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) nexus.
  • We argue that water is a crucial input for agricultural and oil production, constraining and competing for food and energy outputs.
  • Given current production techniques, we conclude that the continued increase in oil production and agricultural output could be more sustainable. A radical restructuring of the relationships between water, energy, and food production is required.
  • Our policy recommendations are based on two categories – domestic changes and policies that require cooperation with neighboring countries.

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